The End of most Seafood by 2048?

Scientists predict that if we continue fishing as we are now, we will see the end of most seafood by 2048.

The End of the Line, is the first major feature documentary film, revealing the impact of overfishing on our oceans.

The movie shows the effects of our global love affair with fish as food. It examines the imminent extinction of bluefin tuna, brought on by increasing western demand for sushi, the impact on marine life resulting in a huge overpopulation of jellyfish and the profound implications of a future world with no fish… that would bring certain mass starvation.

Filmed over two years, it follows the investigative reporter Charles Clover, as he confronts politicians and celebrity restaurateurs who exhibit little regard for the damage they are doing to the oceans.

One of his allies is the former tuna farmer turned whistleblower Roberto Mielgo – on the trail of those destroying the world’s magnificent bluefin tuna population.

Filmed all across the world – from the Straits of Gibraltar to the coasts of Senegal and Alaska to the Tokyo fish market – featuring top scientists, indigenous fishermen and fisheries enforcement officials, this movie is a wake-up call to the world.

The End of the Line will question the way you view fish and the oceans they live in.

To view the trailer or purchase the movie, visit:

© 2013 – UGA blog

Cancer and Meat Links

Research has shown that cooking meat at high temperatures creates carcinogenic chemicals that are not present in uncooked meats.

For example, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are the carcinogenic chemicals formed from the cooking of muscle meats such as beef, pork, fowl, and fish.

HCAs form when amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and creatine (a chemical found in muscles) react at high cooking temperatures. Researchers have identified 17 different HCAs resulting from the cooking of muscle meats that may pose human cancer risk.

Research conducted by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) as well as by Japanese and European scientists indicates that heterocyclic amines are created within muscle meats during most types of high temperature cooking.

Recent studies have further evaluated the relationship associated with methods of cooking meat and the development of specific types of cancer. One study conducted by researchers from NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics found a link between individuals with stomach cancer and the consumption of cooked meats.

The researchers assessed the diets and cooking habits of 176 people diagnosed with stomach cancer and 503 people without cancer. The researchers found that those who ate their beef medium-well or well-done had more than three times the risk of stomach cancer than those who ate their beef rare or medium-rare.

They also found that people who ate beef four or more times a week had more than twice the risk of stomach cancer than those consuming beef less frequently. Additional studies have shown that an increased risk of developing colorectal, pancreatic, and breast cancer is associated with high intakes of well-done, fried, or barbequed meats.

Four factors influence HCA formation: type of food, cooking method, temperature, and time. HCAs are found in cooked muscle meats; other sources of protein (milk, eggs, tofu, and organ meats such as liver) have very little or no HCA content naturally or when cooked.

Temperature is the most important factor in the formation of HCAs. Frying, broiling, and barbecuing produce the largest amounts of HCAs because the meats are cooked at very high temperatures. One study conducted by researchers showed a threefold increase in the content of HCAs when the cooking temperature was increased from 200° to 250°C (392° to 482°F).

Oven roasting and baking are done at lower temperatures, so lower levels of HCAs are likely to form, however, gravy made from meat drippings does contain substantial amounts of HCAs.

Stewing, boiling, or poaching are done at or below 100°C (212°F); cooking at this low temperature creates negligible amounts of the chemicals. Foods cooked a long time (“well-done” instead of “medium”) by other methods will also form slightly more of the chemicals.

To view the full article from Medicinenet visit:

© 2014 – UGA blog

Richard Branson gives up Red Meat

First Bill Clinton & Al Gore, now Richard Branson has also removed Beef from his diet. This simple dietary change significantly improves health and reduces adverse environmental impacts.

Here’s what he had to say:

“For the last few months, I have given up what was previously one of my favourite foods: beef. Eating less red meat can be healthier, better for the environment and – surprisingly to me – really easy to do so.

Meat consumption today contributes to global warming and environmental degradation. It’s estimated that 14.5% of global man-made greenhouse gas emissions come from livestock – which is more than the contribution from all forms of transport. Beef production makes up 41% of those emissions.
Last year, Brazil reported a 28% increase in Amazonian deforestation – 80% of deforested land in Brazil is then used for cattle farming. This results in a huge loss of biodiversity. Modern beef farming is also a huge drain on water resources. A 2010 study calculated that it takes 1799 gallons of water to make just 1lb of beef.

But it is possible to change. Reducing meat consumption is a growing trend, driven by health and environmental considerations. A switch to a ‘healthy diet’ as recommended by Harvard Medical School – which still includes eating meat, fish and eggs – would reduce GHG emissions from food production by 36%. The Norwegian military announced it is switching to a one-day-a-week vegetarian diet in a move to combat global warming, while even in the US consumption of red-meat is falling."

Click on the link to view the full article and find out why Richard Branson is leaving Beef off his plate.
Why I’ve given up eating beef, to boost my health & the environment. Would you do the same?

Some content Borrowed from Richard Branson’s Blog at

© 2014 – UGA blog

Will Our Rainforests Disappear This Century?

The world’s rain forests could completely vanish in a hundred years at the current rate of deforestation.

It is impossible to overstate the devastating impact of humankind’s clearing of the forests. The transformation of forested lands by human actions represents one of the great forces in global environmental change and one of the great drivers of biodiversity loss.

The earth’s forests are being cleared on a massive scale, often resulting in damage to the quality of the land. Forests still cover about 30 percent of the world’s land area, but regions the size of Panama ( 75,416 km² ) are lost each and every year.

The biggest driver of deforestation is agriculture. Farmers cut forests to provide more room for planting crops such as corn, soy & palm oil or grazing livestock.

Logging operations, which provide the world’s wood and paper products, also cut countless trees each year.

Deforestation has many negative effects on the environment. The most dramatic impact is a loss of habitat for millions of species.

70% of Earth’s land animals and plants live in forests, and many cannot survive the deforestation that destroys their homes.

Deforestation also drives climate change. Forest soils are moist, but without protection from sun-blocking tree cover they quickly dry out.

Trees also help perpetuate the water cycle by returning water vapor back into the atmosphere. Without trees to fill these roles, many former forest lands can quickly become barren deserts.

Removing trees also deprives the forest of portions of its canopy, which blocks the sun’s rays during the day and holds in heat at night. This disruption leads to more extreme temperatures swings that can be harmful to plants and animals.

Trees play a critical role in absorbing the greenhouse gases that fuel global warming. Fewer forests means larger amounts of greenhouse gases entering the atmosphere—and increased speed and severity of global warming.


© 2013 – UGA blog

In Praise of Madiba - Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela was a terrorist, a convict, a communist, a saboteur and an enemy of the State!

He was also one of them greatest heroes of the last century, He achieved in South Africa what even Mahatma Gandhi was unable to do in India and he did it in a way that respected all of humanity.

This is a man who evolved above the pettiness of racial conflict, a man who saw with profound clarity that South Africa was not a Black nation, a Coloured nation or a White nation. He saw South Africa as a great nation with opportunities for all people no matter their colour, their tribe, their religion, or their culture.

I was in South Africa in 1969 as a seaman on a Norwegian merchant ship. We were unloading sulfur and potash from Canada, a country whose anti apartheid policies did not stop them from selling resources including an ingredient for making gunpowder.

I saw apartheid first hand. I remember returning to the ship at midnight just as a night shift of factory workers were heading home. About a hundred Africans were walking down the sidewalk towards me, one white man, alone.

What did they do?

They all crossed the street and avoided eye contact with me. I saw real fear there and it was not a fear of me as an individual but of a State that threatened dire consequences should a white person be assaulted or even insulted. They all knew that my word was more powerful than all of their words combined.

What I saw that day was the face of tyranny.

While in South Africa, I heard about Nelson Mandela for the first time. He was a prisoner on Robben Island and strangely enough I found this out because I was interested in Robben Island because it means “island of seals” in Afrikaans. First I discovered that this rookery for seals also held a prison for political prisoners and then I discovered that one of these prisoners was a man named Nelson Mandela.

I was intrigued. So much so that I wrote an article about him, an article that I could not get published in the North American mainstream media because, according to the editors they were not interested in articles about terrorists.

I did publish the article in the Georgia Straight, an alternative weekly newspaper in Vancouver, British Columbia where I worked in the early Seventies along with alternative voices of reason and compassion like Bob Geldof.

And over the years I heard very little about Nelson Mandela. Stephen Biko was murdered and thousands of South Africans were persecuted as most of the world continued to do trade with South Africa as a strong pro-Western anti-communist power. They even developed and tested their own nuclear weapon.

If not for the powerful Black Lobby in the U.S. Congress, the United States would most likely have given South Africa even more support, including weapons.

But finally after years of struggle and hardship, apartheid was overthrown and Nelson Mandela became the first Black President of South Africa. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace. The U.S. presented him with the Medal of Freedom and the Soviet Union presented him with The Order of Lenin. Yet he still officially remained on the list of people barred from entry to the United States.

In 1969 or anytime during the Seventies, the very idea that Nelson Mandela would one day be President of South Africa was an impossible thought. No one, not even Mandela himself could imagine such a possibility. It was simply an impossibility.

And yet it happened. The impossible became possible and in achieving that position, in winning the Nobel prize, Mandela gave a gift to all of us and that was the gift of hope, the realization that no matter how daunting the situation, no matter how formidable the obstacles, that passion, courage and imagination can prevail.

Madiba died today at age 95.He is gone but what we will never lose is the legacy of this great man, the ideas that he transformed into reality, the dreams that he made real. The strength of his convictions and the passion and kindness of his heart.

We all die but few have lived as Nelson Mandela lived, few have achieved as much as he was able to achieve.

Even his prison number 46664 (meaning prisoner 466 incarcerated in 1964) is now the name of a humanitarian charitable organization. Mandela had been able to turn all the opposition against him in his life into tools to make this a better world.

The last one hundred years have given us very few exceptionally great inspirational and peaceful leaders. The three most influential have been Mahatma Gandhi, Dr. Martin Luthor King and Nelson Mandela and only one of them was a President of a nation although I believe King would have become the greatest President of the United States if he had not been assassinated by a coward. Gandhi was also assassinated.

I am happy that Mandela was able to live a long and remarkable life.

He not only served his country with exceptional honour, he has served all of mankind with dignity and amazing grace.

Nelson Mandela 1918 -2013

Written by Captain Paul Watson – Sea Shepherd founder


© 2013 – UGA blog

Factory Farming & the Environment

The U.N. has identified the livestock industry as one of the most significant contributors to today’s most serious environmental problems, including loss of fresh water, rainforest destruction, air & water pollution, acid rain, soil erosion, loss of habitat & climate change.

Australians eat on average 113.6 kg of meat per person per year. This is 2.67 times the global average of 42.5 kg per person.

Climate change

Livestock production is responsible for nearly one fifth of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions – more than all the planes, trains & automobiles in the world combined. Clearing forest land to grow feed also destroys crucial carbon ‘sinks’ and releases gases previously stored in the soil and vegetation.


Agriculture uses 70% of the planet’s fresh water, & leading water scientists recently issued a warning that we would need to reduce our consumption of animal protein to a quarter of current levels to feed the estimated global population in 2050.


A farm of 5,000 pigs produces as much waste as a town of 20,000 people. When this waste remains untreated, it can pollute soil, surface water, & even run off into oceans and pollute underground drinking water.

Factory farming uses substantial amounts of pesticides & chemical fertilisers to produce enough feed, & these toxic substances often end up in waterways, polluting rivers & oceans.


The clearing of land to make room for more crops to feed animals, particularly in Latin America & sub-Saharan Africa, is completely changing the landscape, with severe negative consequences.

For example, current trends suggest that the agricultural expansion for grazing and crops in the Amazon will see as much as 40% of this important rainforest destroyed by 2050.


This clearing of land for animal feed is having a catastrophic effect on our planet’s biodiversity, particularly in forest and tropical regions. According to scientists who studied the clearing of land for farming in the developing world between 1980 & 2000, intensive agriculture, rather than family farming, was the major reason for this loss of biodiversity.

What can we do

Supermarkets, restaurants and farmers respond to consumer demand. After all, they will only produce & sell what customers buy. If we don’t buy factory farmed products, then retailers don’t stock them.

If retailers don’t stock them, then there’s no market for those products, & if a producer cannot sell that product, then factory farmers are forced to change their practices.

By simply refusing factory farmed products, you can help to eliminate this cruel & environmentally destructive practice altogether.

For more information and tips on how to refuse factory farmed animal products & prevent environmental destruction, visit:

© 2013 – UGA blog

The Real Price of Dairy

The treatment of bobby calves has been a long-held secret of the dairy industry. For the sake of milk products, the Australian dairy industry discards & slaughters some 700,000 unwanted week-old calves as ‘waste products’ every year.

Like us, dairy cows need to be pregnant in order to produce milk. Many milk drinkers are shocked to learn that dairy cows are kept almost continually pregnant in order to maximise their production of milk — the milk that nature intended for their baby calves.

Once born, bewildered calves are then separated from their mothers and routinely killed as ‘waste products’ before they are even a week old.

Already born to a terrible fate, the dairy industry recently lobbied government to prevent reforms, and it remains legally permissible to withhold liquid food from these unwanted calves for the last 30 hours of their lives as they are trucked and prepared for slaughter.

The dairy industry has long operated under a veil of secrecy. They know that many consumers of milk would find the callous treatment of bobby calves completely unacceptable and rethink their financial support of the industry.

If the treatment of bobby calves is to improve, it is imperative that the industry becomes accountable and for the public to exercise their consumer power.

Please copy the link below & go to the site to sign the petition to show Dairy Australia that the community is watching & that informed consumers will never accept the callous treatment of thinking, feeling animals as mere ’waste products.’


© 2013 – UGA blog

Health Concerns With Dairy

Milk and dairy products are not necessary in the diet and can in fact be harmful to health.

A major concern of dairy consumption is the contaminants found in cow’s milk, which ranges from natural hormones to pesticides. The milk produced by the nursing mothers of all species, including humans, is specific to the developmental needs of each infant.

Cow’s milk naturally contains hormones and growth factors produced within the cow’s body that are specifically suited to the needs of an infant calf. Once introduced into the human body, these hormones may affect normal hormonal function.

Consumption of dairy products has been linked to a higher risk for various cancers, especially to cancers of the reproductive system. Most significantly, dairy consumption has been linked to increased risk for prostate and breast cancers.

The danger of dairy product consumption as it relates to prostate and breast cancers is most likely related to the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), found in cow’s milk. Consuming milk and dairy products on a regular basis has been shown to increase circulating levels of IGF-1.

In addition to the increased levels of IGF-1, estrogen metabolites are also considered risk factors for cancers of the reproductive system, including cancers of the breasts, ovaries, and prostate. These metabolites can affect cellular proliferation such that cells grow rapidly and aberrantly, which can lead to cancer growth.

Commercial dairy cows are also treated with antibiotics for conditions such as mastitis, or inflammation, of the mammary glands, with traces of these medications being found in dairy products. Antibiotic treatment is used frequently due to the unnatural farming practices acquired to ensure dairy cows produce more milk than nature intended.

Pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxins are other examples of contaminants found in milk. Dairy products contribute to one-fourth to one-half of the dietary intake of total dioxins. All of these toxins do not readily leave the body and can eventually build to harmful levels that may affect the immune, reproductive, and the central nervous systems. Moreover, PCBs and dioxins have also been linked to cancer.

Cow’s milk consumption is also the leading cause of iron-deficiency anemia in infants, with the American Academy of Pediatrics now discouraging parents from giving children milk before their first birthday. Additionally it has been shown that milk consumption in childhood also contributes to the development of Type-I diabetes.

A 2001 Finnish study of 3,000 infants with genetically increased risk for developing diabetes showed that early introduction of cow’s milk increased susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. Certain proteins in milk resemble molecules on the beta cells of the pancreas that secrete insulin. In some cases, the immune system makes antibodies to these milk proteins & mistakenly attacks and destroys the beta cells.

Food allergies also appear to be a common result of cow’s milk consumption, particularly in children, with links to chronic constipation also being evident.

Contrary to common beliefs, clinical research clearly shows that dairy products have little or no benefit for bone health. The Harvard Nurses’ Health Study, which followed more than 72,000 women for 18 years, showed no protective effect of increased milk consumption on fracture risk.

Another common problem associated with dairy consumption is Lactose intolerance. Symptoms include gastrointestinal distress, diarrhea and flatulence, which occur because many individuals no longer have the enzyme lactase to digest the milk sugar lactose.

Nursing children have active enzymes that break down lactose, but as we age, many of us lose much of this capacity. Due to the common nature of this condition, and in order to avoid these uncomfortable side effects, milk consumption is not recommended.

It is best to consume a healthful diet of fruits, vegetables, wholegrains, legumes and fortified milk alternatives or juices.These nutrient-dense foods can help you meet your calcium, potassium, riboflavin, and vitamin D requirements with ease—without facing the health risks associated with dairy product consumption.

( Source of facts: )

© 2013 – UGA blog

UGA Water Filters.

A little about the wholesale company we use at urban gypsy australia to supply our water filter products and why we chose them.

Their Mission Statement

First and foremost our priority is to produce exceptionally high quality water filter systems, which will turn contaminated tap water into great tasting, clean, fresh, alkaline, magnetised, and energised (live) mineral water. Our mission is to make these products available to you at a sensible and affordable price.

Our Environmental Goal is simply to provide a healthier and more sustainable option to disposable bottled water. By doing so we can lessen the impact associated with bottled water on our planet’s precious resources, landfill and littering of our land, rivers and oceans.

Environmentally Conscious

We understand and respect our precious environment and the importance of being sustainable minded. In Korea, Waters Co Ltd have won Presidential awards for being one of the country’s most sustainable manufacturers.
In Australia, we are committed to uphold these values, reducing our carbon footprint by recycling, minimising paper usage and incorporate energy saving strategies in our office & distribution centre. Additionally we have now formally ceased print media (Magazine advertising) to further reduce waste!

Community Minded

At this company, we have always supported our local and international communities, helping out with charities, fund raising and educating on the benefits of hydration and health.
We have a program in which local communities, schools, sporting clubs, church groups etc can raise funds for important projects and equipment through our company.

Their History

No manufacturer of water filters has won as many awards for quality or as many high level endorsements & associations as them.
Est. in 1977 they were based in South Korea, and have now been exporting water filtration products to Australia & the world since 1984. Their products have been stringently tested resulting in a number of certifications & quality awards from internationally recognised bodies including:
ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation),
USA FDA (Food & Drug Administration),
Water Quality Association,
Olympic Scientific Congress,
USA EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
International Star Quality Awards (Geneva, Switzerland, Spain),
KQA (Korea Quality Assurance)
World Quality Commitment Award
Most Environmentally Conservative Company (Korea Ministry of Environment)

They have supported the communities in both South Korea and Australia for more than 30 years.

So this means you can be confident that your investment will meet your level of expectations, every time.

As you can see they fit in very well with the ideals of urban gypsy australia.

© 2013 – UGA blog

What Are All Those Numbers In Food?


Food additives by code number


100 Turmeric or curcumin, yellow (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

101 Riboflavin, lactoflavin, vitamin B2, yellow (failsafe)

102 AVOID Tartrazine, yellow #5 artificial

103 Alkanet, pink (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

104 AVOID Quinoline yellow artificial

110 AVOID Sunset yellow artificial

120 Cochineal or carmines, red (from beetles, can cause true allergy – CAUTION)

122 AVOID Azorubine, carmoisine artificial

123 AVOID Amaranth artificial

124 AVOID Ponceau 4R, brilliant scarlet artificial

127 AVOID Erythrosine artificial

129 AVOID Allura red artificial

132 AVOID Indigotine, indigo carmine artificial

133 AVOID Brilliant blue artificial

140 Chlorophyll (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

141 Chlorophyll-copper (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

142 AVOID Food green S, acid brilliant green artificial

143 AVOID Fast green FCF artificial

150a Caramel I

150b Caramel II

150c Caramel III

150d Caramel IV

151 AVOID Brilliant black BN artificial

153 Carbon black, vegetable carbon

155 AVOID Brown HT, chocolate brown artificial

160a Beta-carotene (failsafe)

160b AVOID Annatto extracts, bixin, norbixin

160c Paprika oleoresins (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

160d Lycopene (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

160e beta-apo-8’ Carotenal (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

160f E-apo-8’ Carotenoic acid (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

161a Flavoxanthin (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

161b Lutein (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

161c Kryptoxanthin (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

161d Rubixanthin (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

161e Violoxanthin (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

161f Rhodoxanthin (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

162 Beet red (may contain sodium nitrate – preservative 251- up to 25 mg/kg – CAUTION)

163 Anthocyanins, red, blue, violet (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

164 Saffron, crocetin, crocin (failsafe colour from saffron plant but commercial saffron may be mixed with artificial colour 102 – CAUTION)

170 Calcium carbonate, mineral colour and calcium supplement (failsafe)

171 Titanium dioxide, mineral colour, white (failsafe)

172 Iron oxide, red, black, yellow mineral colours (failsafe)

173 Aluminium, mineral colour

174 Silver, mineral colour

175 Gold, mineral colour

181 Tannic acid, brown (concentrated natural colours can be high in salicylates, amines or glutamates – CAUTION)

Preservatives – sorbates

200 AVOID Sorbic acid

201 AVOID Sodium sorbate

202 AVOID Potassium sorbate

203 AVOID Calcium sorbate

Preservatives – benzoates

210 AVOID Benzoic acid

211 AVOID Sodium benzoate

212 AVOID Potassium benzoate

213 AVOID Calcium benzoate

Sorbates and benzoates have been associated with the full range of food intolerance reactions.

216 Propylparaben

218 Methylparaben

Preservatives 216 and 218 are only permitted in food colours in Australia.

Preservatives – sulphites (aka sulfites)

220 AVOID Sulphur dioxide

221 AVOID Sodium sulphite

222 AVOID Sodium bisulphite

223 AVOID Sodium metabisulphite

224 AVOID Potassium metabisulphite

225 AVOID Potassium sulphite

228 AVOID Potassium bisulphite

Sulphites (above) are the biggies for asthmatics. Not to be confused with sulphates (514-519). Also known as sulfites.

234 Nisin

235 Natamycin

242 Dimethyl dicarbonate (new, untested)

Preservatives – nitrates and nitrites (also colour fixatives)

249 AVOID Potassium nitrite

250 AVOID Sodium nitrite

251 AVOID Sodium nitrate

252 AVOID Potassium nitrate

Unlike many food additives, nitrates and nitrites are necessary. Used in processed meats, they prevent bacterial growth and food poisoning, but they are not failsafe.

Food acids

260 Acetic acid

261 Potassium acetate

262 Sodium diacetate

262 Sodium acetate

263 Sodium acetate

264 Ammonium acetate

270 Lactic acid

Preservatives – propionates

280 AVOID Propionic acid

281 AVOID Sodium propionate

282 AVOID Calcium propionate

283 AVOID Potassium propionate

Widespread use in bread in Australia and the US, propionates are rarely used in Europe. Recently permitted also in cheese, fruit and vegetable products in Australia.

290 Carbon dioxide (propellant)

296 Malic acid (food acid)

297 Fumaric acid (food acid)


300 Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

301 Sodium ascorbate

302 Calcium ascorbate

303 Potassium ascorbate

304 Ascorbyl palmitate

306 Mixed tocopherols (vitamin E)

307 dl-a-Tocopherol

308 g-Tocopherol

309 d-Tocopherol

310 AVOID Propyl gallate

311 AVOID Octyl gallate

312 AVOID Dodecyl gallate

315 Erythorbic acid

316 Sodium erythorbate

319 AVOID tert-Butylhydroquinone, tBHQ

320 AVOID Butylated hydroxyanisole, BHA

321 AVOID Butylated hydroxytoluene, BHT

322 Lecithin (also an emulsifier)

Gallates and TBHQ, BHA and BHT are used to preserve vegetable oils and margarines. When vegetable oils are used in other products, these antioxidants are often unlisted because of the 5% labelling loophole. BHA and BHT can also leach into products from cereal wrappers and clingfilm. Antioxidants 300-309 are safe alternatives.

More food acids

325 Sodium lactate

326 Potassium lactate

327 Calcium lactate

328 Ammonium lactate

329 Magnesium lactate

330 Citric acid

331 Sodium dihydrogen citrate

331 Sodium citrate

331 Sodium acid citrate

332 Potassium citrates

333 Calcium citrate

334 Tartaric acid

335 Sodium tartrate

336 Potassium tartrate

336 Potassium acid tartrate

337 Potassium sodium tartrate

338 Phosphoric acid

Food acids are safe for most people. Most failsafers can manage citric acid (330), a few react.

Mineral salts

339 Sodium phosphates

340 Potassium phosphates

341 Calcium phosphates

342 Ammonium phosphates

343 Magnesium phosphates

More food acids

349 Ammonium malate

350 DL-Sodium malates

351 Potassium malate

352 DL-Calcium malate

353 Metatartaric acid

354 Calcium tartrate

355 Adipic acid

357 Potassium adipate

365 Sodium fumarate

366 Potassium fumarate

367 Potassium fumarate

368 Ammonium fumarate

375 Nicotinic acid, niacin (B vitamin)

380 Triammonium citrate

380 Ammonium citrate

381 Ferric ammonium citrate

385 Calcium disodium EDTA

Vegetables gums and thickeners

400 Alginic acid

401 Sodium alginate

402 Potassium alginate

403 Ammonium alginate

404 Calcium alginate

405 Propylene glycol alginate

406 Agar agar, isinglass

407 AVOID Carrageenan

Vegetable gums are failsafe. Guar and xanthan are used extensively by coeliacs. Carrageenan (407) used in yoghurts, icecreams and others has been linked to cancer and is not recommended in large quantities for young children.

407a Processed eucheuma seaweed

409 Arabinogalactan

410 Locust bean gum

412 Guar gum

413 Tragacanth

414 Acacia

415 Xanthan gum

416 Karaya gum

418 Gellan gum


420 Sorbitol

421 Mannitol

422 Glycerin (glycerol)

Humectants keep food moist. These additives are also used as sweeteners. The first two are not permitted in foods for babies and young children. Glycerin is used as a humectant in marshmallows and other sweets. All can cause nausea or diarrhea in large amounts or sensitive people.


433 Polysorbate 80

435 Polysorbate 60

436 Polysorbate 65

440 Pectin (also a vegetable gum)

442 Ammonium salts of phosphatidic acid

444 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate

More mineral salts

450 Sodium pyrophosphate

450 Sodium acid pyrophosphate

450 Potassium pyrophosphate

451 Sodium tripolyphosphate

451 Potassium tripolyphosphate

452 Sodium polyphosphates, glassy

452 Sodium metaphosphate, insoluble

452 Potassium polymetaphosphate

460 Cellulose microcrystalline and powdered (anti-caking agent)

Thickeners, vegetable gums

461 Methylcellulose

464 Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose

465 Methyl ethyl cellulose

466 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose


470 Magnesium stearate (emulsifier, stabiliser)

471 Mono- and di-glycerides of fatty acids

472a Acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol

472b Lactic and fatty acid esters of glycerol

472c Citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol

472d Tartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol

472e Diacetyltartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol

473 Sucrose esters of fatty acids

475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids

476 Polyglycerol esters of interesterified ricinoleic acid

477 Propylene glycol mono- and di-esters

480 Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate

481 Sodium stearoyl (or oleyl) lactylate

482 Calcium stearoyl (or oleyl) lactylate

491 Sorbitan monostearate

492 Sorbitan tristearate

Mineral salts

500 Sodium carbonate

500 Sodium bicarbonate

501 Potassium carbonates

503 Ammonium carbonate

503 Ammonium bicarbonate

504 Magnesium carbonate (anti-caking agent, mineral salt)

507 Hydrochloric acid (acidity regulator)

508 Potassium chloride

509 Calcium chloride

510 Ammonium chloride

511 Magnesium chloride

512 Stannous chloride (colour retention agent)

514 Sodium sulphate (mineral salt)

515 Potassium sulphate (mineral salt)

516 Calcium sulphate (flour treatment agent, mineral salt)

518 Magnesium sulphate (mineral salt)

519 Cupric sulphate (mineral salt)

526 Calcium hydroxide (mineral salt)

529 Calcium oxide (mineral salt)

535 Sodium ferrocyanide (anti-caking agent)

536 Potassium ferrocyanide (anti-caking agent)

541 Sodium aluminium phosphate, acidic (acidity regulator, emulsifier)

542 Bone phosphate (anti-caking agent)

551 Silicon dioxide (anti-caking agent)

552 Calcium silicate (anti-caking agent)

553 Talc (anti-caking agent)

554 Sodium aluminosilicate (anti-caking agent)

556 Calcium aluminium silicate (anti-caking agent)

558 Bentonite (anti-caking agent)

559 Kaolin (anti-caking agent)

570 Stearic acid (anti-caking agent)

575 Gluconod-lactone (acidity regulator)

577 Potassium gluconate (stabiliser)

578 Calcium gluconate (acidity regulator)

579 Ferrous gluconate (colour retention agent)

Flavour enhancers

620 AVOID L-Glutamic acid

621 AVOID Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG)

622 AVOID Monopotassium L-glutamate

623 AVOID Calcium di-L-glutamate

624 AVOID Monoammonium L-glutamate

625 AVOID Magnesium di-L-glutamate

627 AVOID Disodium guanylate

631 AVOID Disodium inosinate

635 AVOID Disodium 5’-ribonucleotides

The adverse effects of MSG (621) are well documented. We have also received many reports of skin rashes associated with new additive 635 which is a combination of 627 and 631. Yeast extract, hydrolysed vegetable protein (HVP) and hydrolysed plant protein (HPP) are ways that manufacturers include MSG without having to declare it on the label.

636 Maltol

637 Ethyl maltol

640 Glycine

641 L-Leucine

Miscellaneous additives

900 Dimethylpolysiloxane (emulsifier, antifoaming agent, anti- caking agent)

901 Beeswax, white and yellow (glazing agent)

903 Carnauba wax (glazing agent)

904 Shellac, bleached (glazing agent)

905a Mineral oil, white (glazing agent)

905b Petrolatum (glazing agent)

914 Oxidised polyethylene (Humectant)

920 L-Cysteine monohydrochloride (flour treatment agent)

925 Chlorine (flour treatment agent)

926 Chlorine dioxide (flour treatment agent)

928 Benzoyl peroxide (flour treatment agent)

941 Nitrogen (propellant)

942 Nitrous oxide (propellant)

Artificial sweeteners

950 Acesulphame potassium (artificial sweetening substance)

951 AVOID Aspartame (Nutrasweet, Equal) (artificial sweetening substance)The safety of aspartame with regard to brain tumours and others is not proven. Aspartame in diet", “lite” and “no added sugar” products may increase appetite thus failing to assist weight loss. There are reports of addiction. Not recommended. Sugar is a natural alternative. Artificial sweeteners in general are unnecessary, artificial and not recommended.

952 Sodium cyclamate (artificial sweetening substance)

952 Cyclamic acid (artificial sweetening substance)

952 Calcium cyclamate (artificial sweetening substance)

953 Isomalt (humectant)

954 Sodium saccharin (artificial sweetening substance)

954 Saccharin (artificial sweetening substance)

954 Calcium saccharin (artificial sweetening substance)

955 Sucralose (artificial sweetening substance)

956 Alitame (artificial sweetening substance)

957 Thaumatin (flavour enhancer, sweetening substance)

965 Maltitol and maltitol syrup (humectant, stabiliser)

966 Lactitol (humectant)

967 Xylitol (humectant, stabiliser)

1001 Choline salts and esters (emulsifier)

1100 Amylases (flour treatment agent)

1101 Proteases (papain, bromelain, ficin) (flour treatment agent, stabiliser, flavour enhancer)

1102 Glucose oxidase (antioxidant)

1104 Lipases (flavour enchancer)

1105 Lysozyme (preservative) from eggs

1200 Polydextrose (Humectant)

1201 Polyvinylpyrrolidone (stabiliser, clarifying agent, dispersing agent)

1202 Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (colour stabiliser)

Thickeners, vegetable gums

1400 Dextrin roasted starch

1401 Acid treated starch

1402 Alkaline treated starch

1403 Bleached starch

1404 Oxidised starch

1405 Enzyme-treated starches

1410 Monostarch phosphate

1412 Distarch phosphate

1413 Phosphated distarch phosphate

1414 Acetylated distarch phosphate

1420 Starch acetate esterified with acetic anhydride

1421 Starch acetate esterified with vinyl acetate

1422 Acetylated distarch adipate

1440 Hydroxypropyl starch

1442 Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate

1450 Starch sodium octenylsuccinate

1505 Triethyl citrate

1518 Triacetin (humectant)

1520 Propylene glycol (humectant)

1521 Polyethylene glycol 8000 (antifoaming agent)





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